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Nongak (Farmer’s Performance)
Nongak is a kind of music played while farmers are working by forming a farmers’ cooperative group. ·In a wider context, it refers to farmers’ performance consisting of marching while playing percussion instruments such as kkwaenggwari (small gong), jing (large gong), janggo (hourglass-shaped drums), and buk (drums), ritual, labor, and non-ritualistic public entertainment. Nongak is also called gut, maegu, pungjang, geumgo, or chigun. Gut usually refers to a ritual of praying to a god while a shaman is singing and dancing, but it also refers to Nongak. Dangsangut, Saemgut, and Seongjugut refer to a folk religious ritual performed by a group of shamans, whereas gilgut and samchaegut refer to the rhythm of nonak; Ohbangjingut and dodukjaebigut refer to a performance by a nongak troupe.
Pungjang refers to the rhythm of drums during a performance of music, such as dure pungjang, jang pungjang, and baechigi pungjang. Geumgo refers to ensemble music played with drum and metal percussion instruments such as jing and kkwaenggwari. Chigun means a musical band playing march music.
Maegu refers to a ritual for expelling bad spirits and summoning luck. It also means a musical instrument called kkwaenggwari (small gong).
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Tug-of-war is competition or play between two groups pulling at the opposite ends of a rope; the group who successfully brings the rope to their side becomes the winner.
As a popular game played in the southern part of Korea since the olden times, it was mostly played on the first full moon day according to the lunar calendar. Depending on the region, it was played on dano ‒ which is the 5th day of the 5th lunar month ‒ or on baekjungjeol, which is the 15th day of July. A county or a village is divided into east and west, and they make strands by twisting straws collected from each household and by combining the strands into a thick rope and then attaching several handles on their rope. They connect a loop called dore to the head of their rope. They then cross the loops on the center, insert a big log, and connect the ropes of the east and west groups. Villagers participate in the play and strive to bring the rope toward their side to emerge victorious. Each rope has a gender: the east rope is designated as male, and the west rope is female. The winning side is predicted to have abundant harvest and to be free of diseases. Some regions believed that the female rope should win to have abundant harvest.
Pansori (Epic Chant)
Pansori is a unique type of oral epic literatures existing around the world. It is folk music that collectively expresses various music languages and expressions that have been transmitted over several generations of the Korean race. Pansori performed during onsite feasts is considered comprehensive art with an element of theatrical expressions.
Pansori has been transmitted traditionally by lower-lass entertainers called Gwangdae. They sang at farming village or markets, or sometimes during feasts held at the gardens of the nobility or rich people.
While performing Pansori, entertainers sing songs or use narrations or gestures to tell a long story, with a drummer sitting on the ground providing rhythm by hitting a drum.
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